Paul’s Pastoral Epistles - Introduction

E W Rogers, Oxford

Part 1 of 14 of the series Paul's Pastoral Epistles

Paul's thirteen letters may readily be divided into three groups: (1) those written during the history covered by the book of the Acts, viz. Romans, 1 and 2 Corinthians, Galatians, and 1 and 2 Thessalonians; (2) those written during the im­prisonment alluded to at the end of the book of the Acts, viz. Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians and Philemon; (3) those written after his release therefrom and prior to his martyrdom, viz. 1 and 2 Timothy and Titus. We say nothing about the Epistle to the Hebrews; that may or may not have been written by Paul, we do not know. These letters are not arranged chronologically in our Bible, but, it would appear, they are arranged according to size, the longest being put before the shortest.

The letters to Timothy and Titus are commonly known as Pastoral letters because they give to those two apostolic dele­gates guidance as to how the interests of the local church, and of believers in general, should be cared for. Manifestly there are no apostolic delegates with us today (the false claims of men notwithstanding), but we do have "overseers and servants" (unfortunately translated as "bishops and deacons", these being but anglicized Greek words which, if translated, would be shown thus). These letters are invaluable directives as to how their work should be done. The New Testament does not sanction the highly organized hierarchical and monarchical system established by many, whether it be in its Roman form or in its various dissenting forms, however some may modify their practices.

Timothy was the product of a mixed marriage, his father being a Greek and his mother a Jewess. His mother and grand­mother were God-fearing forebears who taught young Timothy to put his faith in God, 2 Tim. 1. 5. He was a convert of the apostle Paul, 2 Tim. 1. 2, and was chosen by Paul to be his associate in his missionary work, Acts 16.1. This was pursuant to foregoing prophecies touching him, 1 Tim. 1. 18; 4.14, and with the approval and sympathy of the local elderhood, Timothy having been entrusted with a gift that was given to him by the laying on of hands of Paul, 2 Tim. 1. 6. The laying on of Paul's hands involved the importation of the gift: the laying on of hands of the elderhood (presbytery) involved their identification with him in his future work. His gift may have been a multiple one comprising evangelist, pastor and teacher. It would seem so. He was evidently not too strong in body; hence Paul advised him to use a little wine for his stomach's sake and oft infirmities, 1 Tim. 5.23. Maybe also he was rather timid in nature, and needed to be reminded that God had not given us a spirit of cowardice, but of power, love and discipline, 2 Tim. 1. 7. He was a young man, but the Greek word motes, used of him in 1 Timothy 4. 12, is used of adults in the full vigour of life.

Titus is referred to several times in 2 Corinthians in chapters 2, 7, 8 and 12. He may be the one mentioned in Galatians 2. 3. He was a Greek, and a convert of Paul, Titus 1. 4. Paul well sums up the character and work of Titus in 2 Corinthians 8. 23, "my partner and fellowhelper".

It should be observed that, while Paul exerted no dictatorial authority over his fellow workers, they did manifest a healthy submission to his authority. He "sent" them here and there, and on one occasion his communication is called a "command­ment", Acts 17. 15. In Paul's missionary team there was a very happy absence of either dictatorship on the part of Paul, or independence on the part of his companions.

The Object of the First Epistle to Timothy is plainly set out in 3. 15 it was to give direction as to how Timothy and people in general should behave in "the house of God, which is the church of the living God". Paul is not alluding to a building of stone, but to a congregation of persons who owned the Lordship of Jesus. Conduct in the local church, then, is the main theme of this letter. It touches purity of doctrine, the audible exercises in the gathering, restrictions imposed upon teaching, the qualifications of those who undertake the care and service of the church, widows, servants, the rich - the whole range of matters as relevant today as they were at the time when Paul wrote. These things Timothy was expected to transmit to "faithful men, who shall be able to teach others also", 2 Tim. 2. 2.

The Object of the Second Epistle to Timothy is not so plainly stated, though the circumstances in which he wrote, and the proximity of the end of his earthly life are clearly in view. Paul has in mind the devolution of responsibilities to Timothy, and from him, in due time, to others also. The four chapters may be respectively labelled: Be courageous, ch. 1; Be careful, ch. 2; Be constant, ch. 3; Be considerate, ch. 4. Or we may say that here we have Paul's bequests to his son Timothy. They are: An Unfailing Saviour, ch. 1; A Sure Foundation, ch. 2; An Infallible Guide, ch. 3; A Confident Hope, ch. 4. All this we will develop, as God helps, in due course.

The Purpose of the Epistle to Titus was multiple. It was to give guidance in the ordaining of elders, the inculcation of proper behaviour on the part of various people in the church, as old and young, men and women, servants and subjects, and how to deal with heretics. The importance of such authoritative guidance for today is not only plain, but cannot be over-rated.

The Place of Writing. It is not apparent from what place the first letter to Timothy and that to Titus were written. Conjecture is of no spiritual value. It is, however, clear that the second letter to Timothy was written from the prison at Rome where Paul was on trial for his life. Paul, under the guidance of the Spirit, and with the well-being of the churches lying heavily upon his heart, felt the importance of putting into writing the things he had so often made the subject of his verbal teaching, 1 Tim. 1. 3. His other letters had covered much ground such as the Gospel of God, God's plans for His earthly people, order in the local church, and many other matters. It only now remained for him to give directions to these apostolic delegates, encouraging a shepherd heart and conduct in them, so that those who read these letters after their decease might have a like spirit.

We shall not, in these articles, give a verse by verse and line by line exposition of the Epistles. This has been done in various commentaries, all of which should be read discriminately, sorting out the chaff from the wheat. We shall here merely content ourselves with giving the gist of the chapters, empha­sizing what we deem to be points that need most to be stressed in our present time.

There are 9 articles in
ISSUE (1973, Volume 24 Issue 1)

Christ the Image of God

Gospel Work and other Assembly Activities

‘Have ye Here any Meat?’

The Jewish Synagogue

Meditation on Psalm 27

Paul’s Pastoral Epistles - Introduction

Prayer in Proverbs

Salvation - The Work of God for Men - Part 2

Turning the World Upside Down - A Century of Missionary Endeavour

There are 14 articles in this series

Paul’s Pastoral Epistles - Introduction

1 Timothy 1

1 Timothy 2

1 Timothy 3

1 Timothy 4

1 Timothy 5

1 Timothy 6

2 Timothy 1: ‘Be Courageous’

2 Timothy 2: ‘Be Careful’

2 Timothy 3: ‘Be Constant’

2 Timothy 4: ‘Be Considerate’

Titus 1: God is Faithful

Titus 2: Christian Behaviour and its Effects

Titus 3: The Christian and the State

There are 82 articles by this author

To Spread the Gospel - the Believer’s Responsibility

Smyrna

Pergamos

Thyatira

Sardis

Philadelphia

Laodicea

The Purpose of God

Paul’s Prayer

What a Change!

The Epistle to the Ephesians

The Mystery

Ministry in the Church

Gathered Threads

Some Practical Lessons

Paul’s Pastoral Epistles - Introduction

1 Timothy 1

1 Timothy 2

1 Timothy 3

1 Timothy 4

1 Timothy 5

1 Timothy 6

2 Timothy 1: ‘Be Courageous’

2 Timothy 2: ‘Be Careful’

2 Timothy 3: ‘Be Constant’

2 Timothy 4: ‘Be Considerate’

Titus 1: God is Faithful

Titus 2: Christian Behaviour and its Effects

Titus 3: The Christian and the State

The Believer’s Responsibility in Regard to the Spread of the Gospel

The Infallible Christ

Will the Church go through the Great Tribulation?

The Man of God out of Judah

Having been Gathered Out

‘For Me to Live is Christ’

Short Papers on Some Fundamental Truths

After all This

The Scriptures of Truth (Part 1)

The Scriptures of Truth (Part 2)

Evidences of New Birth

The Inspiration of Scripture

On the being of God - The Holy Trinity

The Attributes of Divine Persons

Eternal Punishment

Gospel Preaching: the Message, Motive and Method

The Believer’s Responsibility in regard to the Spread of the Gospel. 2 KINGS 7 : 9.

Question: What is the meaning of “being crafty, I caught you with guile”? (2 Cor. 12: 16)

Question: Ought Christians to testify to all whom they meet?

Question: Is it wise to submit to being called “Plymouth Brethren”?

Question: Assembly Ceasing to Exist

Question: Delivering unto Satan

Question: Does the pre-eminence of Christ Guarantee that the Saved will Outnumber the Unsaved?

Question: The Activities of The Holy Spirit in the Eternal State

Question: Is the Devil PERSONALLY able to operate in more than one place at a time?

Question: Are the instructions in James 5. 14 applicable to-day?

Question: What was wrong with the desire of the sons of Eli for roast flesh Instead of boiled flesh?

Question: Does John 14. 6 imply that the unevangelised heathen will be lost?

Question: Conviction of Sin?

Question: Attitude of Young Believers in Assembly

Question: Why did blind Bartimeus address the Lord Jesus as “Jesus, thou Son of David”?

Question: Were the “miracles” of Peter and Paul examples of faith comparable with... Heb. 11?

Question: Ministry before the Breaking of Bread?

Question: Necessary to be Baptised to Break Bread?

Question: Concerning “He that believeth on Me the works that I do shall he do also.”

Question: In what sense have believers been crucified with Christ?

Question: The Publishing of Able Brethren's Addresses to Conventions, etc.?

Question: Why are the Proverbs Neglected as a Basis for Practical Ministry?

Prayer to the Lord Jesus

Sanctification

The Ministry Of Reconciliation 2 Cor. 5. 19-21

Question: Does 1 Cor. 14. 34 apply to all meetings when brethren are present?

Question: How far are we justified in speaking of God as Father when preaching the gospel?

Question: What are we to understand by the “spiritual body” referred to in 1 Cor. 15?

Question: To what does the phrase, “that which is perfect,” refer in 1 Cor. 13?

Question: How is it that many of the laws in the O.T. appear to be quite cruel?

Question: If believers go to be with Christ immediately at death how can they be raised?

Question: What happens to the believer when he dies before the Lord returns?

Question: Sins of the believer at the Judgement Seat of Christ?

Question: Satan disputing with Michael?

Victory And Defeat

Paul’s thorn in the flesh

Evidences of New Birth